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Prometheus - 手动配置监控 Kubernetes 集群

汪洋
2024-01-17 / 3 评论 / 7 点赞 / 1,862 阅读 / 30,456 字

655efaf32d492.png

一、部署 Prometheus

$ kubectl create ns kube-ops
# 创建 prometheus-cm.yaml
apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: prometheus-config
  namespace: kube-ops
data:
  prometheus.yml: |
    global:
      scrape_interval: 15s    # 表示 prometheus 抓取指标数据的频率,默认是 15s
      scrape_timeout: 15s     # 表示 prometheus 抓取指标数据的超时时间,默认是 15s
    scrape_configs:
    - job_name: 'prometheus'
      static_configs:
      - targets: ['localhost:9090']
# 创建 prometheus-pvc.yaml
kind: PersistentVolumeClaim
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  name: prometheus
  namespace: kube-ops
spec:
  storageClassName: nfs-storage
  accessModes:
    - ReadWriteMany
  resources:
    requests:
      storage: 10Gi
# 创建 prometheus-rbac.yaml
apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
metadata:
  name: prometheus
  namespace: kube-ops
---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRole
metadata:
  name: prometheus
rules:
- apiGroups:
  - ""
  resources:
  - nodes
  - services
  - endpoints
  - pods
  - nodes/proxy
  verbs:
  - get
  - list
  - watch
- apiGroups:
  - ""
  resources:
  - configmaps
  - nodes/metrics
  verbs:
  - get
- nonResourceURLs:
  - /metrics
  verbs:
  - get
---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
metadata:
  name: prometheus
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: ClusterRole
  name: prometheus
subjects:
- kind: ServiceAccount
  name: prometheus
  namespace: kube-ops
# 创建 prometheus-deploy.yaml
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: prometheus
  namespace: kube-ops
  labels:
    app: prometheus
spec:
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: prometheus
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: prometheus
    spec:
      serviceAccountName: prometheus
      containers:
      - image: prom/prometheus:v2.4.3
        name: prometheus
        command:
        - "/bin/prometheus"
        args:
        - "--config.file=/etc/prometheus/prometheus.yml"
        - "--storage.tsdb.path=/prometheus"
        - "--storage.tsdb.retention=24h"
        - "--web.enable-admin-api"  # 控制对admin HTTP API的访问,其中包括删除时间序列等功能
        - "--web.enable-lifecycle"  # 支持热更新,直接执行localhost:9090/-/reload立即生效
        ports:
        - containerPort: 9090
          protocol: TCP
          name: http
        volumeMounts:
        - mountPath: "/prometheus"
          subPath: prometheus
          name: data
        - mountPath: "/etc/prometheus"
          name: config-volume
        resources:
          requests:
            cpu: 100m
            memory: 512Mi
          limits:
            cpu: 100m
            memory: 512Mi
      securityContext:
        runAsUser: 0
      volumes:
      - name: data
        persistentVolumeClaim:
          claimName: prometheus
      - configMap:
          name: prometheus-config
        name: config-volume
# 创建 prometheus-svc.yaml 
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: prometheus
  namespace: kube-ops
  labels:
    app: prometheus
spec:
  selector:
    app: prometheus
  type: NodePort
  ports:
    - name: web
      port: 9090
      targetPort: http

二、监控 ingress-nginx

Prometheus 的数据指标是通过一个公开的 HTTP(S) 数据接口获取到的,我们不需要单独安装监控的 agent,只需要暴露一个 metrics 接口,Prometheus 就会定期去拉取数据;对于一些普通的 HTTP 服务,我们完全可以直接重用这个服务,添加一个 /metrics 接口暴露给 Prometheus

# 创建新的配置文件 prome-cm.yaml 
apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: prometheus-config
  namespace: kube-ops
data:
  prometheus.yml: |
    global:
      scrape_interval: 30s
      scrape_timeout: 30s

    scrape_configs:
    - job_name: 'prometheus'
      static_configs:
        - targets: ['localhost:9090']

    - job_name: 'ingressnginx12'
      static_configs:
        - targets: ['192.168.66.12:10254']

    - job_name: 'ingressnginx13'
      static_configs:
        - targets: ['192.168.66.13:10254']
# 重载 prometheus
$ kubectl  get svc -n kube-ops
        NAME         TYPE       CLUSTER-IP    EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)          AGE
        prometheus   NodePort   10.11.6.226   <none>        9090:30604/TCP   6m19s

$ curl -X POST "http://10.11.6.226:9090/-/reload"
# 确认是否捕获数据
PQL:sum(nginx_ingress_controller_nginx_process_requests_total{controller_class="k8s.io/ingress-nginx",controller_namespace="ingress-nginx"})

三、创建 node-exporter,监控节点资源

node_exporter 就是抓取用于采集服务器节点的各种运行指标,目前 node_exporter 支持几乎所有常见的监控点,比如 conntrack,cpu,diskstats,filesystem,loadavg,meminfo,netstat 等,详细的监控点列表可以参考其 Github repo

# 创建 prome-node-exporter.yaml 
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: DaemonSet
metadata:
  name: node-exporter
  namespace: kube-ops
  labels:
    name: node-exporter
spec:
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      name: node-exporter
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        name: node-exporter
    spec:
      hostPID: true
      hostIPC: true
      hostNetwork: true
      containers:
      - name: node-exporter
        image: prom/node-exporter:v0.16.0
        ports:
        - containerPort: 9100
        resources:
          requests:
            cpu: 0.15
        securityContext:
          privileged: true
        args:
        - --path.procfs
        - /host/proc
        - --path.sysfs
        - /host/sys
        - --collector.filesystem.ignored-mount-points
        - '"^/(sys|proc|dev|host|etc)($|/)"'
        volumeMounts:
        - name: dev
          mountPath: /host/dev
        - name: proc
          mountPath: /host/proc
        - name: sys
          mountPath: /host/sys
        - name: rootfs
          mountPath: /rootfs
      tolerations:
      - key: "node-role.kubernetes.io/control-plane"
        operator: "Exists"
        effect: "NoSchedule"
      volumes:
        - name: proc
          hostPath:
            path: /proc
        - name: dev
          hostPath:
            path: /dev
        - name: sys
          hostPath:
            path: /sys
        - name: rootfs
          hostPath:
            path: /

在 Kubernetes 下,Promethues 通过与 Kubernetes API 集成,目前主要支持5中服务发现模式,分别是:Node、Service、Pod、Endpoints、Ingress

通过指定 kubernetes_sd_configs 的模式为 node,Prometheus 就会自动从 Kubernetes 中发现所有的 node 节点并作为当前 job 监控的目标实例,发现的节点 /metrics 接口是默认的 kubelet 的 HTTP 接口

prometheus 去发现 Node 模式的服务的时候,访问的端口默认是10250,而现在该端口下面已经没有了/metrics指标数据了,现在 kubelet 只读的数据接口统一通过10255端口进行暴露了,所以我们应该去替换掉这里的端口,但是我们是要替换成10255端口吗?不是的,因为我们是要去配置上面通过node-exporter抓取到的节点指标数据,而我们上面是不是指定了hostNetwork=true,所以在每个节点上就会绑定一个端口9100,所以我们应该将这里的10250替换成9100

这里我们就需要使用到 Prometheus 提供的relabel_configs中的replace能力了,relabel 可以在 Prometheus 采集数据之前,通过Target 实例的 Metadata 信息,动态重新写入 Label 的值。除此之外,我们还能根据 Target 实例的 Metadata 信息选择是否采集或者忽略该 Target 实例

添加了一个 action 为labelmap,正则表达式是__meta_kubernetes_node_label_(.+)的配置,这里的意思就是表达式中匹配都的数据也添加到指标数据的 Label 标签中去。

对于 kubernetes_sd_configs 下面可用的标签如下: 可用元标签:

  • __meta_kubernetes_node_name:节点对象的名称
  • _meta_kubernetes_node_label:节点对象中的每个标签
  • _meta_kubernetes_node_annotation:来自节点对象的每个注释
  • _meta_kubernetes_node_address:每个节点地址类型的第一个地址(如果存在) *

关于 kubernets_sd_configs 更多信息可以查看官方文档:kubernetes_sd_config

Kubernetes 1.11+ 版本以后,kubelet 就移除了 10255 端口, metrics 接口又回到了 10250 端口,所以这里不需要替换端口,但是需要使用 https 的协议

# 修改 prometheus 配置文件 prome-cm.yaml 
apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: prometheus-config
  namespace: kube-ops
data:
  prometheus.yml: |
    global:
      scrape_interval: 30s
      scrape_timeout: 30s

    scrape_configs:
    - job_name: 'prometheus'
      static_configs:
        - targets: ['localhost:9090']

    - job_name: 'ingressnginx12'
      static_configs:
        - targets: ['192.168.66.12:10254']

    - job_name: 'ingressnginx13'
      static_configs:
        - targets: ['192.168.66.13:10254']

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-nodes'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: node
      relabel_configs:
      - source_labels: [__address__]
        regex: '(.*):10250'
        replacement: '${1}:9100'
        target_label: __address__
        action: replace
      - action: labelmap
        regex: __meta_kubernetes_node_label_(.+)

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-kubelet'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: node
      scheme: https
      tls_config:
        ca_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/ca.crt
        insecure_skip_verify: true
      bearer_token_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token
      relabel_configs:
      - action: labelmap
        regex: __meta_kubernetes_node_label_(.+)

四、监控容器资源指标

说到容器监控我们自然会想到cAdvisor,我们前面也说过cAdvisor已经内置在了 kubelet 组件之中,所以我们不需要单独去安装,cAdvisor的数据路径为/api/v1/nodes/<node>/proxy/metrics,同样我们这里使用 node 的服务发现模式,因为每一个节点下面都有 kubelet

# 修改 prometheus 配置文件,prome-cm.yaml 
apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: prometheus-config
  namespace: kube-ops
data:
  prometheus.yml: |
    global:
      scrape_interval: 30s
      scrape_timeout: 30s

    scrape_configs:
    - job_name: 'prometheus'
      static_configs:
        - targets: ['localhost:9090']

    - job_name: 'ingressnginx12'
      static_configs:
        - targets: ['192.168.66.12:10254']

    - job_name: 'ingressnginx13'
      static_configs:
        - targets: ['192.168.66.13:10254']

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-nodes'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: node
      relabel_configs:
      - source_labels: [__address__]
        regex: '(.*):10250'
        replacement: '${1}:9100'
        target_label: __address__
        action: replace
      - action: labelmap
        regex: __meta_kubernetes_node_label_(.+)

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-kubelet'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: node
      scheme: https
      tls_config:
        ca_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/ca.crt
        insecure_skip_verify: true
      bearer_token_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token
      relabel_configs:
      - action: labelmap
        regex: __meta_kubernetes_node_label_(.+)

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-cadvisor'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: node
      scheme: https
      tls_config:
        ca_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/ca.crt
      bearer_token_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token
      relabel_configs:
      - action: labelmap
        regex: __meta_kubernetes_node_label_(.+)
      - target_label: __address__
        replacement: kubernetes.default.svc:443
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_node_name]
        regex: (.+)
        target_label: __metrics_path__
        replacement: /api/v1/nodes/${1}/proxy/metrics/cadvisor

五、监控 ApiServer 指标

# 修改 prometheus 配置文件
[root@k8s-master01 prometheus-Manual]# cat 5.monit-apiserver.yaml 
apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: prometheus-config
  namespace: kube-ops
data:
  prometheus.yml: |
    global:
      scrape_interval: 30s
      scrape_timeout: 30s

    scrape_configs:
    - job_name: 'prometheus'
      static_configs:
        - targets: ['localhost:9090']

    - job_name: 'ingressnginx12'
      static_configs:
        - targets: ['192.168.66.12:10254']

    - job_name: 'ingressnginx13'
      static_configs:
        - targets: ['192.168.66.13:10254']

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-nodes'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: node
      relabel_configs:
      - source_labels: [__address__]
        regex: '(.*):10250'
        replacement: '${1}:9100'
        target_label: __address__
        action: replace
      - action: labelmap
        regex: __meta_kubernetes_node_label_(.+)

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-kubelet'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: node
      scheme: https
      tls_config:
        ca_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/ca.crt
        insecure_skip_verify: true
      bearer_token_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token
      relabel_configs:
      - action: labelmap
        regex: __meta_kubernetes_node_label_(.+)

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-cadvisor'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: node
      scheme: https
      tls_config:
        ca_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/ca.crt
      bearer_token_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token
      relabel_configs:
      - action: labelmap
        regex: __meta_kubernetes_node_label_(.+)
      - target_label: __address__
        replacement: kubernetes.default.svc:443
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_node_name]
        regex: (.+)
        target_label: __metrics_path__
        replacement: /api/v1/nodes/${1}/proxy/metrics/cadvisor

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-apiservers'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: endpoints
      scheme: https
      tls_config:
        ca_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/ca.crt
      bearer_token_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token
      relabel_configs:
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_namespace, __meta_kubernetes_service_name, __meta_kubernetes_endpoint_port_name]
        action: keep
        regex: default;kubernetes;https

六、通过 Service 监控服务

# 修改 prometheus,监控 Service
apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: prometheus-config
  namespace: kube-ops
data:
  prometheus.yml: |
    global:
      scrape_interval: 30s
      scrape_timeout: 30s

    scrape_configs:
    - job_name: 'prometheus'
      static_configs:
        - targets: ['localhost:9090']

    - job_name: 'ingressnginx12'
      static_configs:
        - targets: ['192.168.66.12:10254']

    - job_name: 'ingressnginx13'
      static_configs:
        - targets: ['192.168.66.13:10254']

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-nodes'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: node
      relabel_configs:
      - source_labels: [__address__]
        regex: '(.*):10250'
        replacement: '${1}:9100'
        target_label: __address__
        action: replace
      - action: labelmap
        regex: __meta_kubernetes_node_label_(.+)

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-kubelet'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: node
      scheme: https
      tls_config:
        ca_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/ca.crt
        insecure_skip_verify: true
      bearer_token_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token
      relabel_configs:
      - action: labelmap
        regex: __meta_kubernetes_node_label_(.+)

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-cadvisor'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: node
      scheme: https
      tls_config:
        ca_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/ca.crt
      bearer_token_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token
      relabel_configs:
      - action: labelmap
        regex: __meta_kubernetes_node_label_(.+)
      - target_label: __address__
        replacement: kubernetes.default.svc:443
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_node_name]
        regex: (.+)
        target_label: __metrics_path__
        replacement: /api/v1/nodes/${1}/proxy/metrics/cadvisor

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-apiservers'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: endpoints
      scheme: https
      tls_config:
        ca_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/ca.crt
      bearer_token_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token
      relabel_configs:
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_namespace, __meta_kubernetes_service_name, __meta_kubernetes_endpoint_port_name]
        action: keep
        regex: default;kubernetes;https

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-service-endpoints'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: endpoints
      relabel_configs:
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_service_annotation_prometheus_io_scrape]
        action: keep
        regex: true
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_service_annotation_prometheus_io_scheme]
        action: replace
        target_label: __scheme__
        regex: (https?)
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_service_annotation_prometheus_io_path]
        action: replace
        target_label: __metrics_path__
        regex: (.+)
      - source_labels: [__address__, __meta_kubernetes_service_annotation_prometheus_io_port]
        action: replace
        target_label: __address__
        regex: ([^:]+)(?::\d+)?;(\d+)
        replacement: $1:$2
      - action: labelmap
        regex: __meta_kubernetes_service_label_(.+)
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_namespace]
        action: replace
        target_label: kubernetes_namespace
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_service_name]
        action: replace
        target_label: kubernetes_name

relabel_configs中过滤了 annotation 有prometheus.io/scrape=true的 Service

七、部署 kube-state-metrics,并监控

# 部署 kube-state-metrics,地址 https://github.com/kubernetes/kube-state-metrics
$ kubectl apply -f examples/standard
# 创建 kube-state-metrics 服务的 svc 文件,被监控,svc.yaml 
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  annotations:
    prometheus.io/scrape: 'true'
    prometheus.io/port: "8080"
  namespace: kube-system
  labels:
    app: kube-state-metrics
  name: kube-state-metrics-exporter
spec:
  ports:
  - name: 80-8080
    port: 80
    protocol: TCP
    targetPort: 8080
  selector:
    app.kubernetes.io/name: kube-state-metrics
  type: ClusterIP

八、部署 grafana 服务

# 创建 grafana 部署文件
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: grafana
  namespace: kube-ops
  labels:
    app: grafana
spec:
  revisionHistoryLimit: 10
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: grafana
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: grafana
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: grafana
        image: grafana/grafana:5.3.4
        imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
        ports:
        - containerPort: 3000
          name: grafana
        env:
        - name: GF_SECURITY_ADMIN_USER
          value: admin
        - name: GF_SECURITY_ADMIN_PASSWORD
          value: admin321
        readinessProbe:
          failureThreshold: 10
          httpGet:
            path: /api/health
            port: 3000
            scheme: HTTP
          initialDelaySeconds: 60
          periodSeconds: 10
          successThreshold: 1
          timeoutSeconds: 30
        livenessProbe:
          failureThreshold: 3
          httpGet:
            path: /api/health
            port: 3000
            scheme: HTTP
          periodSeconds: 10
          successThreshold: 1
          timeoutSeconds: 1
        resources:
          limits:
            cpu: 100m
            memory: 256Mi
          requests:
            cpu: 100m
            memory: 256Mi
        volumeMounts:
        - mountPath: /var/lib/grafana
          subPath: grafana
          name: storage
      securityContext:
        fsGroup: 472
        runAsUser: 472
      volumes:
      - name: storage
        persistentVolumeClaim:
          claimName: grafana
# 创建 grafana 存储 pv,grafana-volume.yaml 
apiVersion: v1
kind: PersistentVolumeClaim
metadata:
  name: grafana
  namespace: kube-ops
spec:
  storageClassName: nfs-client
  accessModes:
  - ReadWriteOnce
  resources:
    requests:
      storage: 1Gi
# 创建 grafan svc 文件,grafana-svc.yaml 
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: grafana
  namespace: kube-ops
  labels:
    app: grafana
spec:
  type: NodePort
  ports:
    - port: 3000
  selector:
    app: grafana
# 创建 job,调整 grafana 挂载目录权限,grafana-chown-job.yaml 
apiVersion: batch/v1
kind: Job
metadata:
  name: grafana-chown
  namespace: kube-ops
spec:
  template:
    spec:
      restartPolicy: Never
      containers:
      - name: grafana-chown
        command: ["chown", "-R", "472:472", "/var/lib/grafana"]
        image: busybox
        imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
        volumeMounts:
        - name: storage
          subPath: grafana
          mountPath: /var/lib/grafana
      volumes:
      - name: storage
        persistentVolumeClaim:
          claimName: grafana

九、监控 metrics.server

从 Kubernetes v1.8 开始,资源使用情况的监控可以通过 Metrics API 的形式获取,例如容器 CPU 和内存使用率。这些度量可以由用户直接访问(例如,通过使用 kubectl top 命令),或者由集群中的控制器(例如,Horizontal Pod Autoscaler)使用来进行决策,具体的组件为 Metrics Server,用来替换之前的 heapster,heapster 从 1.11 开始逐渐被废弃。

Metrics-Server 是集群核心监控数据的聚合器。通俗地说,它存储了集群中各节点的监控数据,并且提供了 API 以供分析和使用。Metrics-Server 作为一个 Deployment 对象默认部署在 Kubernetes 集群中。不过准确地说,它是 Deployment,Service,ClusterRole,ClusterRoleBinding,APIService,RoleBinding 等资源对象的综合体。

# https://github.com/kubernetes-sigs/metrics-server
kubectl apply -f https://github.com/kubernetes-sigs/metrics-server/releases/latest/download/components.yaml
apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: metrics-server
  name: metrics-server
  namespace: kube-system
---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRole
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: metrics-server
    rbac.authorization.k8s.io/aggregate-to-admin: "true"
    rbac.authorization.k8s.io/aggregate-to-edit: "true"
    rbac.authorization.k8s.io/aggregate-to-view: "true"
  name: system:aggregated-metrics-reader
rules:
- apiGroups:
  - metrics.k8s.io
  resources:
  - pods
  - nodes
  verbs:
  - get
  - list
  - watch
---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRole
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: metrics-server
  name: system:metrics-server
rules:
- apiGroups:
  - ""
  resources:
  - nodes/metrics
  verbs:
  - get
- apiGroups:
  - ""
  resources:
  - pods
  - nodes
  verbs:
  - get
  - list
  - watch
---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: RoleBinding
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: metrics-server
  name: metrics-server-auth-reader
  namespace: kube-system
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: Role
  name: extension-apiserver-authentication-reader
subjects:
- kind: ServiceAccount
  name: metrics-server
  namespace: kube-system
---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: metrics-server
  name: metrics-server:system:auth-delegator
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: ClusterRole
  name: system:auth-delegator
subjects:
- kind: ServiceAccount
  name: metrics-server
  namespace: kube-system
---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: metrics-server
  name: system:metrics-server
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: ClusterRole
  name: system:metrics-server
subjects:
- kind: ServiceAccount
  name: metrics-server
  namespace: kube-system
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: metrics-server
  name: metrics-server
  namespace: kube-system
spec:
  ports:
  - name: https
    port: 443
    protocol: TCP
    targetPort: https
  selector:
    k8s-app: metrics-server
---
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: metrics-server
  name: metrics-server
  namespace: kube-system
spec:
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      k8s-app: metrics-server
  strategy:
    rollingUpdate:
      maxUnavailable: 0
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        k8s-app: metrics-server
    spec:
      containers:
      - args:
        - --cert-dir=/tmp
        - --secure-port=4443
        - --kubelet-preferred-address-types=InternalIP,ExternalIP,Hostname
        - --kubelet-use-node-status-port
        - --metric-resolution=15s
        - --kubelet-preferred-address-types=InternalIP    # InternalIP\Hostname\InternalDNS\ExternalDNS\ExternalIP, Hostname 默认的通过主机名通讯,InternalIP 需要显示设置后才能通过 IP 通讯
        - --kubelet-insecure-tls    # 如果不想设置 kubelet 的证书认证,可以通过此选项跳过认证
        image: registry.k8s.io/metrics-server/metrics-server:v0.6.4
        imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
        livenessProbe:
          failureThreshold: 3
          httpGet:
            path: /livez
            port: https
            scheme: HTTPS
          periodSeconds: 10
        name: metrics-server
        ports:
        - containerPort: 4443
          name: https
          protocol: TCP
        readinessProbe:
          failureThreshold: 3
          httpGet:
            path: /readyz
            port: https
            scheme: HTTPS
          initialDelaySeconds: 20
          periodSeconds: 10
        resources:
          requests:
            cpu: 100m
            memory: 200Mi
        securityContext:
          allowPrivilegeEscalation: false
          readOnlyRootFilesystem: true
          runAsNonRoot: true
          runAsUser: 1000
        volumeMounts:
        - mountPath: /tmp
          name: tmp-dir
      nodeSelector:
        kubernetes.io/os: linux
      priorityClassName: system-cluster-critical
      serviceAccountName: metrics-server
      volumes:
      - emptyDir: {}
        name: tmp-dir
---
apiVersion: apiregistration.k8s.io/v1
kind: APIService
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: metrics-server
  name: v1beta1.metrics.k8s.io
spec:
  group: metrics.k8s.io
  groupPriorityMinimum: 100
  insecureSkipTLSVerify: true
  service:
    name: metrics-server
    namespace: kube-system
  version: v1beta1
  versionPriority: 100

metric-server 监控数据原理.png

十、alertmanager 部署

# 创建 alertmanager 配置文件,alertmanager-conf.yaml 
apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: alert-config
  namespace: kube-ops
data:
  config.yml: |-
    global:
      # 在没有报警的情况下声明为已解决的时间
      resolve_timeout: 5m
      # 配置邮件发送信息
      smtp_smarthost: 'smtp.163.com:25'
      smtp_from: '[email protected]'
      smtp_auth_username: '[email protected]'
      smtp_auth_password: '------------------------'
      smtp_hello: '163.com'
      smtp_require_tls: false
    # 所有报警信息进入后的根路由,用来设置报警的分发策略
    route:
      # 这里的标签列表是接收到报警信息后的重新分组标签,例如,接收到的报警信息里面有许多具有 cluster=A 和 alertname=LatncyHigh 这样的标签的报警信息将会批量被聚合到一个分组里面
      group_by: ['alertname', 'cluster']
      # 当一个新的报警分组被创建后,需要等待至少group_wait时间来初始化通知,这种方式可以确保您能有足够的时间为同一分组来获取多个警报,然后一起触发这个报警信息。
      group_wait: 30s

      # 当第一个报警发送后,等待'group_interval'时间来发送新的一组报警信息。
      group_interval: 5m

      # 如果一个报警信息已经发送成功了,等待'repeat_interval'时间来重新发送他们
      repeat_interval: 5m

      # 默认的receiver:如果一个报警没有被一个route匹配,则发送给默认的接收器
      receiver: default

      # 上面所有的属性都由所有子路由继承,并且可以在每个子路由上进行覆盖。
      routes:
      - receiver: email
        group_wait: 10s
        match:
          team: node
    receivers:
    - name: 'default'
      email_configs:
      - to: '[email protected]'
        send_resolved: true
    - name: 'email'
      email_configs:
      - to: '[email protected]'
        send_resolved: true
# 修改 prometheus 配置文件,prometheus-cm.yaml 
apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: prometheus-config
  namespace: kube-ops
data:
  prometheus.yml: |
    global:
      scrape_interval: 30s
      scrape_timeout: 30s

    scrape_configs:
    - job_name: 'prometheus'
      static_configs:
        - targets: ['localhost:9090']

    - job_name: 'ingressnginx12'
      static_configs:
        - targets: ['192.168.66.12:10254']

    - job_name: 'ingressnginx13'
      static_configs:
        - targets: ['192.168.66.13:10254']

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-nodes'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: node
      relabel_configs:
      - source_labels: [__address__]
        regex: '(.*):10250'
        replacement: '${1}:9100'
        target_label: __address__
        action: replace
      - action: labelmap
        regex: __meta_kubernetes_node_label_(.+)

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-kubelet'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: node
      scheme: https
      tls_config:
        ca_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/ca.crt
        insecure_skip_verify: true
      bearer_token_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token
      relabel_configs:
      - action: labelmap
        regex: __meta_kubernetes_node_label_(.+)

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-cadvisor'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: node
      scheme: https
      tls_config:
        ca_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/ca.crt
      bearer_token_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token
      relabel_configs:
      - action: labelmap
        regex: __meta_kubernetes_node_label_(.+)
      - target_label: __address__
        replacement: kubernetes.default.svc:443
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_node_name]
        regex: (.+)
        target_label: __metrics_path__
        replacement: /api/v1/nodes/${1}/proxy/metrics/cadvisor

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-apiservers'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: endpoints
      scheme: https
      tls_config:
        ca_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/ca.crt
      bearer_token_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token
      relabel_configs:
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_namespace, __meta_kubernetes_service_name, __meta_kubernetes_endpoint_port_name]
        action: keep
        regex: default;kubernetes;https

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-service-endpoints'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: endpoints
      relabel_configs:
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_service_annotation_prometheus_io_scrape]
        action: keep
        regex: true
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_service_annotation_prometheus_io_scheme]
        action: replace
        target_label: __scheme__
        regex: (https?)
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_service_annotation_prometheus_io_path]
        action: replace
        target_label: __metrics_path__
        regex: (.+)
      - source_labels: [__address__, __meta_kubernetes_service_annotation_prometheus_io_port]
        action: replace
        target_label: __address__
        regex: ([^:]+)(?::\d+)?;(\d+)
        replacement: $1:$2
      - action: labelmap
        regex: __meta_kubernetes_service_label_(.+)
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_namespace]
        action: replace
        target_label: kubernetes_namespace
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_service_name]
        action: replace
        target_label: kubernetes_name

    alerting:
      alertmanagers:
        - static_configs:
          - targets: ["localhost:9093"]
# 修改 prometheus service 文件, prometheus-svc.yaml
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: prometheus
  namespace: kube-ops
  labels:
    app: prometheus
spec:
  selector:
    app: prometheus
  type: NodePort
  ports:
    - name: web
      port: 9090
      targetPort: http
    - name: altermanager
      port: 9093
      targetPort: 9093
# 合并 altermanager 至 prometheus deploy 文件,promethus-alertmanager-deploy.yaml 
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: prometheus
  namespace: kube-ops
  labels:
    app: prometheus
spec:
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: prometheus
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: prometheus
    spec:
      serviceAccountName: prometheus
      containers:
      - name: alertmanager
        image: prom/alertmanager:v0.15.3
        imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
        args:
        - "--config.file=/etc/alertmanager/config.yml"
        - "--storage.path=/alertmanager/data" 
        ports:
        - containerPort: 9093
          name: alertmanager
        volumeMounts:
        - mountPath: "/etc/alertmanager"
          name: alertcfg
        resources:
          requests:
            cpu: 100m
            memory: 256Mi
          limits:
            cpu: 100m
            memory: 256Mi
      - image: prom/prometheus:v2.4.3
        name: prometheus
        command:
        - "/bin/prometheus"
        args:
        - "--config.file=/etc/prometheus/prometheus.yml"
        - "--storage.tsdb.path=/prometheus"
        - "--storage.tsdb.retention=24h"
        - "--web.enable-admin-api"  # 控制对admin HTTP API的访问,其中包括删除时间序列等功能
        - "--web.enable-lifecycle"  # 支持热更新,直接执行localhost:9090/-/reload立即生效
        ports:
        - containerPort: 9090
          protocol: TCP
          name: http
        volumeMounts:
        - mountPath: "/prometheus"
          subPath: prometheus
          name: data
        - mountPath: "/etc/prometheus"
          name: config-volume
        resources:
          requests:
            cpu: 100m
            memory: 512Mi
          limits:
            cpu: 100m
            memory: 512Mi
      securityContext:
        runAsUser: 0
      volumes:
      - name: data
        persistentVolumeClaim:
          claimName: prometheus
      - configMap:
          name: prometheus-config
        name: config-volume
      - name: alertcfg
        configMap:
          name: alert-config

添加报警演示

# 修改 prometheus cm,添加监控 mem 使用量,prometheus-cm-test.yaml 
apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: prometheus-config
  namespace: kube-ops
data:
  rules.yml: |
    groups:
    - name: test-rule
      rules:
      - alert: NodeMemoryUsage
        expr: (node_memory_MemTotal_bytes - (node_memory_MemFree_bytes + node_memory_Buffers_bytes + node_memory_Cached_bytes)) / node_memory_MemTotal_bytes * 100 > 20
        for: 2m
        labels:
          team: node
        annotations:
          summary: "{{$labels.instance}}: High Memory usage detected"
          description: "{{$labels.instance}}: Memory usage is above 20% (current value is: {{ $value }}"
  prometheus.yml: |
    global:
      scrape_interval: 30s
      scrape_timeout: 30s

    scrape_configs:
    - job_name: 'prometheus'
      static_configs:
        - targets: ['localhost:9090']

    - job_name: 'ingressnginx12'
      static_configs:
        - targets: ['192.168.66.12:10254']

    - job_name: 'ingressnginx13'
      static_configs:
        - targets: ['192.168.66.13:10254']

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-nodes'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: node
      relabel_configs:
      - source_labels: [__address__]
        regex: '(.*):10250'
        replacement: '${1}:9100'
        target_label: __address__
        action: replace
      - action: labelmap
        regex: __meta_kubernetes_node_label_(.+)

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-kubelet'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: node
      scheme: https
      tls_config:
        ca_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/ca.crt
        insecure_skip_verify: true
      bearer_token_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token
      relabel_configs:
      - action: labelmap
        regex: __meta_kubernetes_node_label_(.+)

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-cadvisor'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: node
      scheme: https
      tls_config:
        ca_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/ca.crt
      bearer_token_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token
      relabel_configs:
      - action: labelmap
        regex: __meta_kubernetes_node_label_(.+)
      - target_label: __address__
        replacement: kubernetes.default.svc:443
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_node_name]
        regex: (.+)
        target_label: __metrics_path__
        replacement: /api/v1/nodes/${1}/proxy/metrics/cadvisor

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-apiservers'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: endpoints
      scheme: https
      tls_config:
        ca_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/ca.crt
      bearer_token_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token
      relabel_configs:
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_namespace, __meta_kubernetes_service_name, __meta_kubernetes_endpoint_port_name]
        action: keep
        regex: default;kubernetes;https

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-service-endpoints'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: endpoints
      relabel_configs:
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_service_annotation_prometheus_io_scrape]
        action: keep
        regex: true
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_service_annotation_prometheus_io_scheme]
        action: replace
        target_label: __scheme__
        regex: (https?)
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_service_annotation_prometheus_io_path]
        action: replace
        target_label: __metrics_path__
        regex: (.+)
      - source_labels: [__address__, __meta_kubernetes_service_annotation_prometheus_io_port]
        action: replace
        target_label: __address__
        regex: ([^:]+)(?::\d+)?;(\d+)
        replacement: $1:$2
      - action: labelmap
        regex: __meta_kubernetes_service_label_(.+)
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_namespace]
        action: replace
        target_label: kubernetes_namespace
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_service_name]
        action: replace
        target_label: kubernetes_name

    alerting:
      alertmanagers:
        - static_configs:
          - targets: ["localhost:9093"]

    rule_files:
        - /etc/prometheus/rules.yml

去除无效监控项

# 删除监控 mem 项,prometheus-cm.yaml 
apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: prometheus-config
  namespace: kube-ops
data:
  rules.yml: |
    groups:
  prometheus.yml: |
    global:
      scrape_interval: 30s
      scrape_timeout: 30s

    scrape_configs:
    - job_name: 'prometheus'
      static_configs:
        - targets: ['localhost:9090']

    - job_name: 'ingressnginx12'
      static_configs:
        - targets: ['192.168.66.12:10254']

    - job_name: 'ingressnginx13'
      static_configs:
        - targets: ['192.168.66.13:10254']

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-nodes'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: node
      relabel_configs:
      - source_labels: [__address__]
        regex: '(.*):10250'
        replacement: '${1}:9100'
        target_label: __address__
        action: replace
      - action: labelmap
        regex: __meta_kubernetes_node_label_(.+)

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-kubelet'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: node
      scheme: https
      tls_config:
        ca_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/ca.crt
        insecure_skip_verify: true
      bearer_token_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token
      relabel_configs:
      - action: labelmap
        regex: __meta_kubernetes_node_label_(.+)

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-cadvisor'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: node
      scheme: https
      tls_config:
        ca_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/ca.crt
      bearer_token_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token
      relabel_configs:
      - action: labelmap
        regex: __meta_kubernetes_node_label_(.+)
      - target_label: __address__
        replacement: kubernetes.default.svc:443
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_node_name]
        regex: (.+)
        target_label: __metrics_path__
        replacement: /api/v1/nodes/${1}/proxy/metrics/cadvisor

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-apiservers'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: endpoints
      scheme: https
      tls_config:
        ca_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/ca.crt
      bearer_token_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token
      relabel_configs:
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_namespace, __meta_kubernetes_service_name, __meta_kubernetes_endpoint_port_name]
        action: keep
        regex: default;kubernetes;https

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-service-endpoints'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: endpoints
      relabel_configs:
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_service_annotation_prometheus_io_scrape]
        action: keep
        regex: true
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_service_annotation_prometheus_io_scheme]
        action: replace
        target_label: __scheme__
        regex: (https?)
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_service_annotation_prometheus_io_path]
        action: replace
        target_label: __metrics_path__
        regex: (.+)
      - source_labels: [__address__, __meta_kubernetes_service_annotation_prometheus_io_port]
        action: replace
        target_label: __address__
        regex: ([^:]+)(?::\d+)?;(\d+)
        replacement: $1:$2
      - action: labelmap
        regex: __meta_kubernetes_service_label_(.+)
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_namespace]
        action: replace
        target_label: kubernetes_namespace
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_service_name]
        action: replace
        target_label: kubernetes_name

    alerting:
      alertmanagers:
        - static_configs:
          - targets: ["localhost:9093"]

    rule_files:
        - /etc/prometheus/rules.yml

655efaa155545.png

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